In general terms, I examine context effects in social judgments and decision making. Most of the research that I have conducted relates to assimilation and contrast effects in social judgments, people’s responses to affective experiences, people’s predictions of future affective states, and the impact of conversational processes on people’s judgments and decisions. In recent years, I have also developed several lines of research that examine the consequences of people’s existential concerns (e.g., life & death, boredom, loneliness) and the specific cognitive and motivational processes that underlie these effects. Below I will describe my main research areas and when the developed.
As a master student at the University of Heidelberg I investigated with Herbert Bless, Michaela Wänke, and Norbert Schwarz assimilation and contrast effects in social judgments (Bless, Igou, Schwarz, & Wänke, 2000; Wänke, Bless, & Igou, 2001). Almost parallel to this research, I developed an interest in the impact of conversational rules on information processing. This interest is especially reflected in my dissertation, in which I investigated the impact of conversational rules on the emergence of order effects in one- and two-sided communications (Igou & Bless, 2003, 2007). Towards the end of my PhD education at the University of Heidelberg I became interested in affective forecasting. Specifically, I investigated how lay theories about the progression of affect (continuity vs. decrease) and how different perspectives (self vs. other) influence the predictions that people make about affective states (Igou, 2004, 2008).
During my post-doctoral fellowship at New York University (2002-2004), I started working with Yaacov Trope on affective influences on self-regulation. Specifically, we were interested in how positive mood influences self-control dilemmas in self-evaluative situations (Gervey, Igou, & Trope, 2005; Trope, Igou, & Burke, 2006).
After my post-doc I joined Tilburg University (The Netherlands). There I continued to work on most of the topics mentioned above and I developed an interest in the effects of decision frames (gains vs. losses) on decisions (Igou & Bless, 2007), the impact of construal levels (high vs. low) on judgments, and how subjective experiences (easy vs. difficult recall) influence attitudes. At Tilburg University, I became increasingly interested in the effects of existential concerns (through mortality and life salience) on worldview defense (e.g., ideological judgments; Van Tilburg & Igou, 2011). During that time I developed a research lab group that focused on effects in affective forecasting, framing effects in decision making, and meaning-regulation processes.
In August of 2008, I joined the Department of Psychology at the University of Limerick (Ireland), Here, I developed my current research lab group, which mainly investigates the effects of specific positive and specific negative experiences on judgments and decisions. Wijnand van Tilburg and Frederieke van Dongen became my first PhD students. I am currently the primary supervisor of Paul Maher, Andrew Moynihan, Niamh O'Reilly, and David Tierney.
Wijnand van Tilburg and I investigated the effects of boredom on people's sense of meaningfulness of life and their activities (Van Tilburg & Igou, 2011) and how these effects of boredom in turn lead to meaning-repair attempts such as social identification with one's in-group (Van Tilburg & Igou, 2011). Together with Constantine Sedikides we also showed that boredom increases nostalgia as one form of meaning-repair strategy (Van Tilburg, Igou, & Sedikides, 2013).
Wijnand van Tilburg and I have worked on a variety of additional projects since the mid 2000s. In a project on decisions in navigation tasks (e.g., walking through a maze), we document that people normally use an 'action continuation strategy' (e.g., moving onwards) in navigation situations, unless a change in direction is required (Van Tilburg & Igou, 2014). A couple of our publications document the impact of particular simple cues on person perception. We document that eccentricity boosts perceived skills of artists and the quality of art. Examples here are Van Gogh and Lady Gaga (Van Tilburg & Igou, 2014). In another project, we demonstrate the impact that middle name initials have on person perception: Middle initials increase perceptions of status and intellectual capacity and performance (Van Tilburg & Igou, 2014; Igou & Van Tilburg, 2015).
Frederieke van Dongen and I investigated the effects of positive emotions on moral decision making. Candice Condon, Tim Ritchie and I have worked on shared memory effects (Condon, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015). Elaine Kinsella, Tim Ritchie and I have investigated characteristics and functions of heroes (Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2015a, 2015b). Our heroism project has grown and is ongoing (Coughlan, Igou, Van Tilburg, Kinsella & Ritchie, 2017; Kinsella, Igou, & Ritchie, 2017; Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, in press).
2016-17: I was on a 1-year sabbatical from August 2016 to July 2017. I stayed at the University of Michigan (Institute for Social Research), primarily working with Shinobu Kitayama and with Ethan Kross. I stayed at King's College London, working with Wijnand van Tilburg. And, I stayed at the University of Mannheim, primarily working with Herbert Bless and with Christiane Schöl. All hosts were fantastic - it was a great year, academically and non-academically.
Social Cognition at UL (SOCO-UL) Lab
The SOCO-UL Lab is a European Social Cognition Network (ESCON) lab. My research group usually consists of undergraduate, masters, and PhD students. The current members of the lab group are: Paul Maher, Rob Macrory-Crowley, Daniel McCarthy, Romée Gerritsen, Michael Murphy, Niamh O'Reilly, & David Tierney.
* Since 2008 (University of Limerick): Erin Beal, Emily Braham, John J. Casey, Ciaran Clery, Rebekah Corscadden, Ann Cronin, Roisin Curtin, Lisa Healy, Karina Jonina (KaJo), Elaine Kinsella, Maksymilian Kropinski, Eimear Minogue, Alicia La Perle, Eimear Minogue, Gary O'Connor, Meghan O'Sullivan, Vincent Marrinan, Andrew Moynihan, Kevin O'Malley, Mary Parkinson, Kate Ryan, Hanna Reinacher (visiting from the University of Marburg), Gordon Sayre (visiting from The College of New Jersey), Frederieke van Dongen, Wijnand A. P. van Tilburg (now University of Southampton), Laura Walshe, and Caroline Young.
* 2004-2008 (Tilburg University: Social Cognition and Decision Making Lab): Esther Barten, Philippe van de Calseyde, Peggy Emmerink, Sanne Koevoets, Jain Holsheimer, Joris Mulder, Yvette van Osch, Anne-Lieke Piggen, Thijs Poels, Yaniv Shani (now Tel-Aviv University), Ruud Smolders, and Lonneke van der Linde.
PhD Students at UL
Primary Supervisor of Paul Maher (IRC funded), Rob Macrory-Crowley, Niamh O'Reilly, and David Tierney.
Supervised to completion: Wijnand A. P. van Tilburg (IRCHSS funded), Frederieke van Dongen (IRCHSS funded), Andrew Moynihan, Elaine Kinsella (co-supervised) and Candice Condon (co-supervised; IRCHSS funded),
The European Social Cognition Network (ESCON) is an organization that supports social cognition research in Europe. ESCON is now represented in the Republic of Ireland, funded in part by the Irish Research Council for Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHSS) and the European Science Foundation (ESF). In my role as coordinator of ESCON2 in Ireland, I encourage you contact me if you have questions about our activities. In 2011, I organised with colleagues an ESCON Expert Meeting on Meaning-Regulation in Limerick and ESCON's Transfer of Knowledge Conference (TKC) in Sligo.
In 2009, I developed and organized the first Conference on Social Psychology in Ireland (C-SPI) with the support of colleagues in the department. The conference took place on May 28-29 at the University of Limerick, with keynote addresses by Professor Constantine Sedikides (University of Southampton) and Professor Stephen Reicher (University of St. Andrews). In 2011, the 2nd C-SPI was organised by my colleague Anca Minescu. The next C-SPI is planned for 2013. For more information about C-SPI feel free to contact me or visit the website of our department (www.ul.ie/psychology, then click on News & Events).
Curriculum Development at Master Level; Course Directorships
Master of Science in Psychological Science:
* In 2009, I took the lead in developing a new MSc programme, the MSc in Psychological Science. This 12-month programme covers research methods and offers a menu of diverse areas in psychology (e.g., cognition, sports psychology, organisational psychology, social psychology). This exciting programme runs at UL since 2010. I have been the course director for this course from 2010 to 2013. For more information please contact the current course director, Dr. Stephen Gallagher, and/or check out this link: https://tinyurl.com/MScPsychSciUL
Master of Art in Psychology (Conversion):
* In 2010, I developed a new MA programme, the MA in Psychology. This 12-month programme covers undergraduate and postgraduate modules. It is designed for students with prior education in undergraduate psychology (including research methods) equivalent to 60 ECTS (e.g., a Joint Honours degree). The course thus serves the function of a "conversion" course for students with this amount of prior experiences in psychology. The course has been accredited by the Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI). I am the course director for this course since 2011. For more information please check out this link: https://tinyurl.com/MAPsychUL
Voluntary Internship Programme (VIP)
Based on my research experiences with highly motivated (and smart) undergraduate students at NYU, I developed a voluntary internship programme in research and teaching at Tilburg University. This extra-curricular programme was met with great enthusiasm by students, staff, and a teaching evaluation committee. Shortly after taking on the position at the University of Limerick in 2008, I developed a similar (but more fleshed out) programme at our department, the Voluntary Internship Programme in Research (VIP-R). This programme gives highly motivated students the chance to work with faculty members and their lab groups on research topics that they are interested in. In my case, the research topics lie in the areas of social cognition and decision making.
Head of Department (2010-2013)
In 2010, I took up the post as HoD of a fairly new department. This role has taught me very much about curriculum maintenance & development, institutions, and people. After having served UL in this role for 3 years, I am now enjoying the 'post-HoD era' of my career.
Transnational Coordinator Psychology Education (2014-2016)
In 2014, I took on the role as transnational coordinator for our Bachelor of Science in Psychology course. I am involved in the delivery of this programme at IST College in Athens (Greece; www.ist.edu.gr/en/).
In 2017, after returning from a 1-year sabbatical, I took on the pos as the departmental academic coordinator.
- Attitudes and Beliefs
- Communication, Language
- Emotion, Mood, Affect
- Interpersonal Processes
- Judgment and Decision Making
- Life Satisfaction, Well-Being
- Motivation, Goal Setting
- Person Perception
- Persuasion, Social Influence
- Political Psychology
- Self and Identity
- Social Cognition
Research Group or Laboratory:
- Social Cognition at the University of Limerick (SOCO-UL) Lab, a European Social Cognition Network (ESCON) Lab
Internships and Assistantships:
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- Gervey, B., Igou, E. R., & Trope, Y. (2005). Positive mood and future-oriented self-evaluation. Motivation and Emotion, 29, 203-235. doi:10.1007/s11031-006-9011-3
- Igou, E. R. (2008). "How long will I suffer?" versus "How long will you suffer?" A self-other effect in affective forecasting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 899-917. doi:10.1037/a0011619
- Igou, E. R. (2007). Additional thoughts on conversational and motivational sources of the dilution effect. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 26, 61-68. doi:10.1177/0261927X06296473
- Igou, E. R. (2004). Lay theories in affective forecasting: The progression of affect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 528-534. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2003.09.004
- Igou, E. R., & Bless, H. (2007). Conversational expectations as a basis for order effects in persuasion. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 26, 260-273. doi:10.1177/0261927X06303454
- Igou, E. R., & Bless, H. (2007). On undesirable consequences of thinking: Framing effects as a function of substantive processing. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20, 125-142. doi:10.1002/bdm.543
- Igou, E. R., & Bless, H. (2005). The conversational basis for the dilution effect. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24, 25-35. doi:10.1177/0261927X04273035
- Igou, E. R., & Bless, H. (2003). Inferring the importance of arguments: Order effects and conversational rules. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 91-99. doi:10.1016/S0022-1031(02)00509-7
- Igou, E. R., Bless, H., & Schwarz, N. (2002). Making sense of standardized survey questions: The influence of reference periods and their repetition. Communication Monographs, 69, 179-187. doi:10.1080/714041712
- Igou, E. R., & Van Tilburg, W. A. P. (2015). Ahead of others in the authorship order: Names with middle initials appear earlier in author lists of academic articles in psychology. Frontiers in Psychology, 6:469. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00469
- Shani, Y., Igou, E. R., & Zeelenberg, M. (2009). Different ways of looking at unpleasant truths: How construal levels influence information search. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110, 36-44. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2009.05.005
- Van Tilburg, W. A. P., & Igou, E. R. (2016). Boredom begs to differ: Differentiation from other negative emotions. Emotion. doi:10.1037/emo0000233
- Van Tilburg, W. A. P., & Igou, E. R. (2014). From Van Gogh to Lady Gaga: Artist eccentricity increases perceived artistic skill and art appreciation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 93-103. doi:10.1002/ejsp.1999
- Van Tilburg, W. A. P., & Igou, E. R. (2014). The impact of middle names: Middle name initials enhance evaluations of intellectual performance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 400-411. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2026
- Van Tilburg, W. A. P., & Igou, E. R. (2013). On the meaningfulness of behavior: An expectancy x value approach. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 373-388. doi:10.1007/s11031-012-9316-3
- Van Tilburg, W. A. P., & Igou, E. R. (2012). On boredom: Lack of challenge and meaning as distinct boredom experiences. Motivation and Emotion, 36, 181-194. doi:10.1007/s11031-011-9234-9
- Van Tilburg, W. A. P., & Igou, E. R. (2011). On boredom and social identity: A pragmatic meaning-regulation approach. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1679-1692. doi:10.1177/0146167211418530
- Van Tilburg, W. A. P., Igou, E. R., & Sedikides, C. (2013). In search of meaningfulness: Nostalgia as an antidote to boredom. Emotion, 13, 450-461. doi:10.1037/a0030442
- Igou, E. R. (2010). The when and why of risky choice framing effects: A constructive processing perspective. In G. Keren (Ed.), Perspectives on framing. New York: Psychology Press.
- Igou, E. R., Van Dongen, F., & Van Tilburg, W. A. P. (2012). Preference judgments. In V. S. Ramachandran (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 153-159). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
- Cognition (PS4037)
- Problem Solving & Decision Making (PS6081)
- Psychology and Everyday Life (PS4031)
- Social Cognition (PS4098)
- Theory and Method 2 (PS4042)
Eric Raymond Igou
Department of Psychology
Main Building, E1-036
University of Limerick
- Phone: +353 61 234657
- Fax: +1 425 6997009
- Skype Name: E.R.Igou